General (7)

Categories: General, Glossary

In sport, endurance is the ability to sustain a specific activity (e.g. running, cycling, swimming, etc) at a sub-maximal rate for a prolonged period.

With regards to running, it is generally considered that race distances of 3km or greater are endurance events.

The term stamina is sometimes used synonymously and interchangeably with endurance.

Categories: General, Glossary

Maximum heart rate (or pulse rate) [HRmax] is the fastest / quickest rate at which your heart can beat. In the normal situation maximum heart rate is achieved in response to exercise. The range of maximum heart rate in the general population is highly variable with young adults having values around 200. In general maximum heart rate decreases with age.

There are numerous formulae to estimate maximum heart rate, however due to the large population variation the only accurate way to make an assessment is via an exercise (cardiac) stress test to measure directly. These, particularly for people at the start of their fitness journey, should only be undertaken under medical supervision due to their inherent risks associated with inducing high heart rates.

It has been observed that individuals of the same age, and similar training in the same sport, can have measured HRmax values 60 bpm apart, which strongly calls into question the application of estimation formulae.

Common Estimation Formulae

There are over 30 formulae to estimate maximum heart rate, all sharing the same feature of being dependent on age alone. The two most common ones are presented below.

220 – age

Certainly the most well known formula, and presented in countless textbooks, articles and used by a plethora of computer applications. However, despite the widespread use and acceptance of this formula there is no published record of research for this equation and review advises that it has no scientific merit for use in exercise physiology and related fields. It is estimated that it has an error standard deviation of ~12 beats, suggesting 95% of people will have a true value less than or greater than calculated by 24 beats per minute (a range of 48 beats!).

Whilst attributed to Fox and Haskell, the origins of the formula are vague, though it is understood that they did not derive the formula from original research. Additionally, if one derives a regression formula from the Fox et al manuscript data a different result is achieved: HRmax = 215.4 – age * 0.9147. So even the original data from which the observation established the formula does not support the equation.

208 – (0.7 * age)

Utilising both meta-analysis and laboratory studies, Tanaka, Monahan, & Seals published this formula in 2001. They concluded that HRmax is to a large extent predictable by age alone and is independent of gender and habitual physical activity status. Their study demonstrated a standard deviation of ~10 beats per minute, suggesting a 95% accuracy of ±20 beats per minute. It is probably considered one of the more accurate formula, but with a range of 40 beats, still does not seem great for training purposes.

References & Further Reading

  1. Resting Heart Rate.
  2. Robergs, Robert A. & Landwehr, Roberto (2002). The surprising history of the “HRmax=220-age” equation. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 5(2), pp. 1-10.
  3. Hirofumi Tanaka, Kevin D Monahan, Douglas R Seals (2001). Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 153-156.
  4. Kolata, Gina (2001). “‘Maximum’ Heart Rate Theory Is Challenged”, New York Times.
  5. Gellish, R.L. et al. (2007) Longitudinal Modeling of the Relationship between Age and Maximal Heart Rate. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39 (5), p. 822-829.

Categories: General, Glossary

Normalised Graded Pace is an adjustment of actual pace considering elevation changes. In other words NGP is designed to be the equivalent pace if running at the same level of effort on flat terrain. Consequently, NGP will be slower than actual pace when running downhill and faster when running uphill.

The research to evidence such calculations are relatively sparse, and as one can imagine generic, which can often lead to questionable figures. Particularly at extremes of grades, or over very undulating terrain.

References & Further Reading

  1. Staab JS, Agnew JW, Siconolfi SF. Metabolic and performance responses to uphill and downhill running in distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992 Jan;24(1):124-7. PMID: 1548986.
  2. Minetti AE, Moia C, Roi GS, Susta D, Ferretti G. Energy cost of walking and running at extreme uphill and downhill slopes. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002 Sep;93(3):1039-46. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01177.2001. PMID: 12183501.
  3. Vernillo G, Giandolini M, Edwards WB, Morin JB, Samozino P, Horvais N, Millet GY. Biomechanics and Physiology of Uphill and Downhill Running. Sports Med. 2017 Apr;47(4):615-629. doi: 10.1007/s40279-016-0605-y. PMID: 27501719.
  4. Khassetarash A, Vernillo G, Martinez A, Baggaley M, Giandolini M, Horvais N, Millet GY, Edwards WB. Biomechanics of graded running: Part II-Joint kinematics and kinetics. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2020 Sep;30(9):1642-1654. doi: 10.1111/sms.13735. Epub 2020 Jun 17. PMID: 32485036.
Categories: General, Glossary

Resting heart rate (or pulse rate) is the rate at which your heart beats when awake and resting. It is expressed as the number of beats per minute (bpm), with the normal adult range considered to be between 60 to 100 beats. A rate slower than 60 is considered slow, and conversely considered high when greater than 100. The respective medical terms for this are bradycardia and tachycardia.

Numerous studies have demonstrated that an increased heart rate at rest is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as an independent risk factor. In turn, a decrease in heart rate produces benefits in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, resting heart rate and how it changes over time is associated with mortality risk from not only cardio vascular disease, but others such as breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Consequently, regular monitoring of resting heart rate may have utility in identifying individuals at higher mortality risk.

It’s easy to check your pulse using just your fingers. Lightly press the index and middle fingers of one hand on the opposite wrist, just below the base of the thumb. Count the number of beats you can feel in 15 seconds, and multiply by four. This gives you your heart rate in beats per minute.

Your daily heart rate is affected by a number of factors and a couple of important points to consider are:

  • Do not measure your heart rate within one to two hours after exercise or a stressful event.
  • Wait an hour after consuming caffeine, which can cause heart palpitations and a rise in heart rate.

Both genetics and exercise play an important part in developing a slow heart rate. It has been demonstrated that the affect of aerobic exercise increases with increasing intensity, with significant reductions being seen within a 10 week period. Triathlete and marathon runner, Daniel Green of the United Kingdom, currently holds the World Record for the slowest heart rate at 26 bpm. (Though the official Guinness World Record for the lowest resting heart rate is held by Martin Brady, 45, from Guernsey UK, whose heart-rate measured 27 bpm.)

It is a common belief that over-training results in an increase in (morning) resting heart rate – with ‘threshold’ figures of 7 or more being mentioned. However, there does not appear to be any clear evidence of this, and so this ‘fact’ should be taken with caution.

References & Further Reading

  1. Maximum Heart Rate.
  2. Brito Díaz B, Alemán Sánchez JJ, Cabrera de León A. Frecuencia cardiaca en reposo y enfermedad cardiovascular [Resting heart rate and cardiovascular disease]. Med Clin (Barc). 2014 Jul 7;143(1):34-8. Spanish. doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2013.05.034. Epub 2013 Aug 9. PMID: 23937816.
  3. Seviiri M, Lynch BM, Hodge AM, Yang Y, Liew D, English DR, Giles GG, Milne RL, Dugué PA. Resting heart rate, temporal changes in resting heart rate, and overall and cause-specific mortality. Heart. 2018 Jul;104(13):1076-1085. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312251. Epub 2017 Dec 21. PMID: 29269380.
  4. Cornelissen VA, Verheyden B, Aubert AE, Fagard RH. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability. J Hum Hypertens. 2010 Mar;24(3):175-82. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2009.51. Epub 2009 Jun 25. PMID: 19554028.
  5. Gleeson M. Biochemical and immunological markers of over-training. J Sports Sci Med. 2002 Jun 1;1(2):31-41. PMID: 24688268; PMCID: PMC3963240.
  6. Jeukendrup A, VanDiemen A. Heart rate monitoring during training and competition in cyclists. J Sports Sci. 1998 Jan;16 Suppl:S91-9. doi: 10.1080/026404198366722. PMID: 22587722.
Categories: General, Glossary

Subjective Pace is the term used when running according to feel or perceived effort.

For example, it is considered that the majority of your running should be at a comfortable pace that you can easily hold a conversation – breathing is barely labored.

Categories: General, Glossary

Taper refers to the gradual reduction in training in the lead up to a race with the aim of leaving the athlete in a state of peak fitness for their event. The main belief being that training builds up a degree of underlying lethargy that the taper allows recovery from.

The length and degree of the taper (how severe the reduction in training) is much discussed with equivocal evidence. The obvious worry by many being that the training reduction will result in a loss of fitness, and so a balance is always sought.

Categories: General, Glossary

Workout adherence is a measure of how strictly you followed your workout, with a perfect score being 100%. A score greater than 100% indicates that you ran faster or for longer than intended, and conversely a score less than 100% indicates that you ran slower or for a shorter duration than intended.

If you believe your score is incorrect, the first thing to check is that the run is linked to the correct workout. Following that look at the ‘planned vs performed’ charts for the activity to see where you have been penalised.

Besides displaying the percentage figure, on some screens within the application Workout Adherence is depicted as a ‘traffic light’ graphic. The table below illustrates the graphics used, along with an indication of whether the adherence score equates to the awarding of an angel or devil in one of our running challenges (though specific challenges might vary).

GraphicWorkout AdherencePhraseDescriptionAngel or Devil?
< 90%Too little!You ran significantly too slowly or for a shorter duration than planned.
90% to <92%Almost too littleYou almost ran too slowly or for a shorter duration than planned.
92% to <95%Slightly underA good score but you ran slightly slower or shorter than planned.
95% to <98%Almost perfectClose to perfection, but you ran just a little bit slower or shorter than planned.
98% to 102%Perfection!Top of the class! You followed your planned workout to perfection.
102% to 105%Almost perfectClose to perfection, but you ran just a little bit faster or longer than planned.
105% to 108%Slightly overA good score but you ran slightly faster or longer than planned.
108% to 110%Almost too muchYou almost ran too fast or for a longer duration than planned.
110%Too much!You ran significantly too fast or for a longer duration than planned.

It should also be noted that workout adherence is a velocity-based metric and there will naturally be potential consequent discrepancies if you are running to heart rate. We plan to introduce a heart rate based workout adherence in the future.

Additionally, any run back step is included in the calculations, and so if your run back is excessive this will negatively affect your score. (We are considering introducing a ‘lax’ version of the score that does not include the run back step in the future.)

Performance (5)

Categories: Glossary, Performance

One of the 3 Fit Scores to assess and monitor your performance with regards to your top-speed running.

When training for races of around 3 km or more, this metric will have more relevance than your Speed Score and resemble or at least trend similar to your Goal Score, especially with increases distance. Once your race distance approaches or exceeds a marathon, then will usually become quite similar.

Categories: Glossary, Performance

TrainAsONE Fit Scores are a unique set of metrics to measure your running fitness from your day to day running, and even your rest days.

Commonly, when people talk about their running fitness they break it down into two components: Speed and Endurance. Often saying such things as “I’ve lost some speed, but my endurance has remained’ or “I’ve lost some fitness, but could still run a sub 45 minute 10km”. However, apart from venturing out and running a set of time trials there has been no real way to make any form of objective measure. This is where the Fit Scores come in.

Using our advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML), TrainAsONE calculates 3 numbers that represent your level of running fitness on a daily basis:

  • Speed Score: Your capability for top speed running;
  • Endurance Score: Your capability for running for a long time;
  • Goal Score: Your fitness in respect of your personal goal, e.g. an upcoming 10 km race.

Each score is between 0 and 100, with 100 being world record performing.

The Fit Scores are a unique and very useful indicator of your running fitness as they objectively calculate three performance related markers that are colloquially used and understood. And importantly without having to perform any specific workout or laboratory assessment – in fact they can even be calculated on rest days with no activity or health data!

Not unexpectedly, with large periods of no data (and no running!) Fit Scores will become less and less accurate, with ever greater swings in value from day to day. Fortunately it will not take long for ‘normality’ to resume once a return to running takes place – and as always, the better the consistency of your running, the quicker this will take place.

Screenshot of TrainAsONE Fit Scores as displayed on the mobile app Home screen.
TrainAsONE Fit Scores as displayed on the mobile app Home screen.

As the above image illustrates, the TrainAsONE mobile app displays each of your current Fit Scores on the Home screen, along with a graphic below to indicate their current trend. An interesting point in the above example is that it is possible for your Speed and Endurance Scores to be trending down, yet your Goal Score be trending up. Furthermore, depending on certain factors, including the stage of your training, your Goal Score may trend downwards. Look out for some specific FAQs and articles to help answer when and why this may occur.

Additionally, whilst all the scores are in the range from 0 to 100, the spread varies. In other words the average score for Speed across the population is quite different for Endurance. This is a potential area of work for the future.

In due course we will elaborate a little on how the scores are derived. However, a very important point to raise now is that the underlying techniques being used can also be turned to race time prediction. We’ve already done this, with great success – our own comparison with other published work demonstrates superior accuracy. This, and other factors, give us great confidence and excitement about our Fit Scores. We still feel that we’ve only scratched the surface, and have many avenues to research that will make them and other features in mind even greater and provide an unrivalled training experience.

Further Reading

Categories: Glossary, Performance

One of the 3 Fit Scores to assess and monitor your running performance. As with the 2 other scores, your Goal Score is provided as a number between 0 and 100, with 100 being world record performing.

Directly targeting your current goal, this metric may be of more interest than your Speed or Endurance Score. The relevant goal will change according to your goals within TrainAsONE. Commonly it will be your next primary race, otherwise your preferred distance goal.

For clarification, whilst your Goal Score is between 0 and 100, this is not a percentage and does not indicate a probability of completing your goal (race) in your target time. Features related to this are on the roadmap.

Categories: Glossary, Performance

Race time prediction is the process of predicting how quickly a person will run an upcoming race to the best of their ability. There are numerous approaches, most commonly centred around previous race performance.

In due course we will discuss a number of the best known and important methods.

Using advanced Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning tools, TrainAsONE has developed its own race time prediction methodology. In an interval review these demonstrated themselves to be more accurate than other published work. As of December 2021, these are not yet incorporated into the live system, but due for deployment in the very early part of 2022. At that time we will also publish further information to evidence their accuracy.

Categories: Glossary, Performance

One of the 3 Fit Scores to assess and monitor your performance with regards to your top-speed running.

When training for races of less than around 3 km, this metric will have more relevance than your Endurance Score and resemble or at least trend similar to your Goal Score.

Run Types (3)

Categories: Glossary, Run Types

This is a structured workout incorporating a specific step where you are asked to run for 6 minutes, during which you should get as far a distance as you possibly can.

  • Ensure that ‘auto-pause’ is turned off on your device.
  • It is very important that these runs are correctly classified and confirmed (via your Dashboard). Erroneous classifications can adversely affect your plan.

The 6 minute assessment run provides extremely valuable information and insight into many aspects of your running and physiology. You are commonly asked to perform these at regular moments during your training. It is recommended to always perform them in the same place – a 1 to 2 mile, ideally straight and flat area that you can run fast and without any obstacles or interruption is obviously desired. In this way, you are more likely to perform at your best and if you remember the place you got to you can use it as a target for the next time…

If you are new to speedwork, please take care running the 6 minute workout step – we don’t want you straining anything… Whilst the instruction is to ‘run as fast as you can’, for the less experienced runner walking is permitted – the key thing is to travel as far in the 6 minutes as you can. The gifted and experienced runners should start to feel sick with about 1 to 2 minutes remaining – if you don’t, you’re probably not trying hard enough… 😉

Please note. Any 6 minute assessment run you perform that is not automatically categorised as such by the system (and you do not manually amend it to be) may result in the system continually re-scheduling a further one.

Category: Run Types

This is a structured workout where you are asked to run at certain speeds and specific times according to your subjective level of effort.

  • Ensure that ‘auto-pause’ is turned off on your device.
  • It is very important that these runs are correctly classified and confirmed (via your Dashboard). Erroneous classifications can adversely affect your plan.

A perceived effort run is one mechanism that enables TrainAsONE ® to understand your subjective effort of running and compare to the various underlying physiological processes being measured and tracked. Be honest and do not look at your device (apart from may be to see the time) – start your workout and then put your device in your pocket…

Currently there are 3 levels of effort: Standing, Very Easy Warm-up and Easy Natural pace:

  • Standing: Not strictly a running pace… Stand still and relax for the specified duration. You may like to close your eyes and listen to your surroundings. This is an especially important step for those with a heart rate monitor as the system uses this period to record a standing heart rate.
  • Very Easy Warm-up: Run at a nice slow easy pace to ease into your workout. If you cannot easily hold a conversation without getting short of breath you are going too fast! (If you can run with a friend to help gauge this, then all the better. Else talk or sing to yourself…)
  • Easy Natural: Run at what you feel is an easy natural pace for you. In general, the pace will be slightly faster than your easy warm-up, and holding a conversation would be more difficult but certainly maintainable. For seasoned runners, this would be a pace you feel you could easily maintain for over an hour.


  • Please record the whole session as one activity (run), including any pre-running and post-running standing phases.
  • If you have a heart rate monitor, it is very beneficial to wear it for this workout.
  • Any perceived effort run you perform that is not automatically categorised as such by the system (and you do not manually amend it to be) will result in the system continually re-scheduling a further one.
Categories: Glossary, Run Types

Named after the Japanese physician and researcher, Dr. Izumi Tabata, Tabata is a form of interval training characterised by short but very high intensity steps with minimal rest between. These sessions have been shown to induce significant concomitant changes to both the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems.

Invariably they consist of 8 repeats of 20 seconds very fast all-out steps, with only 10 seconds break between.

If you are new to speedwork, please take care running the fast steps.