Undulation is a single value that represents the difficulty of a route according to the gradients traversed (its elevation changes). The higher the value, the more difficult the terrain, and a greater effect on your pace.
Using its advanced statistical analysis TrainAsONE has not only been able to formulate a methodology to calculate a single number to measure how difficult a terrain is to run, we are also able to correlate this value with Normalised Graded Pace (NGP). Consequently, given the undulation for a route (or an estimate based on routes in the same location) the system is able to perform predictive pacing adjustments (among other exciting things…).
When specifying paces, TrainAsONE can take into account the anticipated undulation along with a number of other factors, for example temperature, wind and humidity to deduce an Environment Adjusted Pace (EAP). Similarly, all activities are analysed with respect to the environment experienced.